Pessoa, Fernando António Nogueira
(1888-1935)

Escritor português, natural de Lisboa. Devido ao casamento da mãe, em segundas núpcias, com o cônsul português em Durban (África do Sul), viveu nesse país entre 1895 e 1905, aí seguindo os estudos secundários.

Frequentou ainda, durante um ano, a escola comercial e a Universidade do Cabo. De regresso a Lisboa, frequentou, também por um período breve, o Curso Superior de Letras. Após uma tentativa falhada de montar uma tipografia e editora, dedicou-se, a partir de 1908, a tempo parcial, à tradução de correspondência estrangeira de várias casas comerciais, dedicando o restante tempo à escrita e ao estudo da filosofia (grega e alemã, nomeadamente), das ciências humanas e políticas, da teosofia e da moderna literatura, que assim acrescentava à sua formação cultural anglo-saxónica, determinante na sua personalidade.

Levando uma vida relativamente apagada, movimentando-se no círculo restrito de amigos que frequentavam as tertúlias intelectuais dos cafés da capital, envolveu-se nas discussões literárias e até políticas da época. Colaborou na revista A Águia, da Renascença Portuguesa, com artigos sobre a nova poesia portuguesa, imbuídos de um sebastianismo animado pela crença no surgimento de um grande poeta nacional. Data de 1913 a publicação de «Pauis» (poema que tentou criar uma corrente — o paulismo) e de 1914 o aparecimento dos seus três principais heterónimos, segundo indicação do próprio Fernando Pessoa. Em 1915, com Mário de Sá-Carneiro e Luís de Montalvor, lançou a revista Orpheu, marco do modernismo português. Publicou, ainda em vida, Antinous (1918), 35 Sonnets (1918), e três séries de English Poems (1921). Em 1934, concorreu com Mensagem a um prémio oficial, que conquistou na categoria B devido à reduzida extensão do livro. Colaborou ainda nas revistas Portugal Futurista (1917), Contemporânea (1922-1926, de que foi co-director), Athena (1924-1925, igualmente co-director) e Presença.

A sua obra, que permaneceu maioritariamente inédita, foi difundida e valorizada pelo grupo da Presença; a partir de 1943, Luís de Montalvor deu início à edição das obras completas de Fernando Pessoa, abrangendo os textos em poesia dos heterónimos e de Pessoa ortónimo. Foram ainda sucessivamente editados escritos seus sobre temas de doutrina e crítica literárias, filosofia, política e páginas íntimas. Do seu vasto espólio foram também retirados o Livro do Desassossego por Bernardo Soares e uma série de outros textos.

A questão humana dos heterónimos, tanto ou mais que a questão puramente literária, tem atraído as atenções gerais: concebidos como individualidades distintas da do autor, este criou-lhes uma biografia e até um horóscopo próprios. Encontram-se ligados a alguns dos problemas centrais da sua obra: a unidade ou a pluralidade do eu, a sinceridade, a noção de realidade e a estranheza da existência. Traduzem, por assim dizer, a consciência da fragmentação do eu, reduzindo o eu «real» de Pessoa a um papel que não é maior que o de qualquer dos seus heterónimos na existência literária do poeta. Assim questiona Pessoa o conceito metafísico de tradição romântica da unidade do sujeito e da sinceridade da expressão da sua emotividade através da linguagem. Enveredando por vários fingimentos, que aprofundam uma teia de polémicas entre si, opondo-se e completando-se, os heterónimos são a mentalização de certas emoções e perspectivas, a sua representação irónica pela inteligência. Deles se destacam três: Alberto Caeiro, Ricardo Reis e Álvaro de Campos.

Caeiro (1885-1915) é o mestre dos outros, e do próprio Pessoa ortónimo. Sem profissão e pouco instruído, vivendo numa quinta ribatejana, apresenta uma visão instintiva e ingénua da natureza, procurando viver a exterioridade das sensações e recusando a metafísica, que reduz os seres ao vazio dos conceitos.

Ricardo Reis, nascido em 1887, de educação latina e estudioso do helenismo (sendo Horácio o seu modelo literário), é médico, não exercendo, no entanto, a profissão. De convicções monárquicas, emigrou para o Brasil após a implantação da república. Pagão intelectual, lúcido e consciente, reflecte uma moral epicurista, misto de altivez resignada e gozo dos prazeres que o não comprometam na sua liberdade interior, e que é a resposta possível do homem à dureza ou ao desprezo dos deuses, à efemeridade da vida.

Álvaro de Campos, nascido em 1890, engenheiro mecânico e naval formado na Escócia, homem viajado, vive em Lisboa sem exercer a sua profissão. Dedica-se à literatura, intervindo em polémicas literárias e políticas. É da sua autoria o «Ultimatum», publicado no Portugal Futurista — manifesto contra os literatos instalados da época; travou com Pessoa ortónimo uma polémica aberta. Protótipo do vanguardismo modernista, é o cantor da energia bruta e da velocidade, da vertigem agressiva do progresso, evoluindo depois no sentido de um tédio, de um desencanto e de um cansaço da vida, progressivos e auto-irónicos.

De entre outros de menor expressão, destaca-se ainda o semi-heterónimo Bernardo Soares, ajudante de guarda-livros que sempre viveu sozinho em Lisboa e revela, no seu Livro do Desassossego, uma lucidez extrema na análise e na capacidade de exploração da alma humana.

Quanto a Fernando Pessoa ortónimo, segue, formalmente, os modelos da poesia tradicional portuguesa, em textos de grande suavidade rítmica e musical. Poeta introvertido e meditativo, anti-sentimental, reflecte inquietações e estranhezas que questionam os limites da realidade da sua existência e do mundo. O poema Mensagem, exaltação sebastiânica com que se cruza um certo desalento, numa expectativa ansiosa de ressurgimento nacional, revela uma faceta esotérica e mística do poeta, manifesta também nas suas incursões pelas ciências ocultas e pelo rosa-crucianismo.

Figura cimeira da literatura portuguesa e da poesia europeia do século XX, se o seu virtuosismo é, sobretudo inicialmente, também uma forma de abalar a sociedade e a literatura burguesas decrépitas (nomeadamente através dos seus «-ismos»: interseccionismo, sensacionismo), ele fundamenta a resposta revolucionária à concepção romântica, sentimentalmente metafísica, da literatura. O apagamento da sua vida pessoal não obviou ao exercício activo da crítica e da polémica em vida, e sobretudo a uma grande influência na literatura portuguesa do século XX.

Existe presentemente, em Lisboa, uma Casa Fernando Pessoa, instalada na última morada do autor.

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